What is destructive distillation of coal?

Destructive distillation of coal is a process in which coal is heated strongly in the absence of air. coal contains number of different elements, such as

  1. Hydrogen
  2. Oxygen
  3. Nitrogen
  4. Sulphur

When coal is subjected in destructive distillation then it produce number of product such as, coal tar and coal gas.

Actually, coal tar and coal gas is formed by destructive distillation of coal with temperature.

simple, we can say,

When coal is subjected to destructive distillation, it yield coal gas, and coal tar cock. coal gas is mainly used as a fuel.


When coal tar is subjected to fractional distillation, it gives some different product such as,

Lets explain about coal tar and coal gas;

1. Coal tar

Actually, coal tar is a mixture of different carbon compounds, it black liquid with unpleasant small.

The fractional distillation of coal tar gives some important chemical substance which is used in preparation of dyes, paints, synthetic fibres.

coal tar is a black type liquid. it has unpleasant small.

2. Coal gas

Actually, coal gas is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane. coal gas used as a fuel.

The gas persent in coal gas are combustible. Let’s know with chemical reaction.

H2 + CO + CH4


H2 – Hydrogen

CO – Carbon monoxide

CH4 – Methane

3. Cock

Cock is form destructive distillation of coal. actually, materials left behind horizontal tube in destructive distillation of coal process. this is know as cock. cock contain 60% carbon. it is purest part of coal. it is also know as charcoal.

Cock is one type of fuels.

Process of destructive distillation of coal (full explanation)

If We do destructive distillation of coal, we get coal gas, cock and coal tar and ammonical liquor.

In this process, when coal is heated with the temperature around 1000°C in the absence of air. Due to this, coal is converted to vapour (gas). and vapour is going to big tube with the help of pipe. after inter gases in big tube. first, some gases condensed, due to this it deposited or satel down and it converted to black viscous liquid. this black viscous liquid is known as coal tar. some gases are colourless in nature this type of gases is known as ammonical liquor.

destructive distillation of coal

After this, some unsaturated vapour are released through the outlet of another tube. this gas is known as coal gas. and materials left behind horizontal tube is called as cock. cock contain 60% carbon.


Destructive distillation of coal produce cock, coal tar, coal gas and ammonical liquor.


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