HCl intermolecular forces has dipole dipole intraction and London dispersion forces.
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Read More:- hclo intermolecular forces, types, importance,FAQ?
What is intermolecular forces?
intermolecular forces are the forces in which it is more attractive or repulsive force force between molecules. and act between atoms, and other types of neighboring particles.
For example – Atoms, or ions,
It is more attracted partial positive end of one molecules to partial negative end of another molecules.
For examples – HCl
Where, (H) hydrogen have positive charge and Cl have negative charge. Intermolecular forces are the force in which it is attracted between molecules. HCl is a polar molecules.
Therefore, hCl has dipole-dipole interaction and London dispersion forces.
Read More:- nh3 intermolecular forces, examples, types, polarity FAQ?
What is the intermolecular forces of HCl?
HCl are made “polar covalent bonds” when atoms share electrons between hydrogen and chloride. Polar covalent bonds atoms such as hydrogen and chloride. HCl is made covalent bonds not hydrogen bonds. Because covalent bonds made in the presence of sharing of electrons between hydrogen and chloride. hydrogen bonds are made if hydrogen are bound to strong electronegative elements such as, Nitrogen, oxygen, fluoride. but HCl intermolecular forces has dipole dipole interaction and London dispersion forces.
You know that, Cl is highly electronegative atoms compare with hydrogen. that why, partial negative charge are appear on Cl and partial positive charge appear on hydrogen. Due to this, both atoms interact each other and it generated dipole dipole forces and London dispersion forces. the hcl intermolecular forces are dipole dipole intraction, because it is a polar molecules. the dipole dipole interaction are more attracted on polar molecules. it is one type of strongest intermolecular forces of attraction. the intermolecular forces in hydrogen chloride are made as intermolecular hydrogen bonding. it is occur if H (hydrogen) is bound to strongly electronegative elements. nitrogen and oxygen is a one type of strongest electronegative elements. If it is bound to (N) nitrogen or (O) oxygen then it make hydrogen bonding otherwise it can’t be made hydrogen bonding.
dipole-dipole intraction, and LDF occur between HCl molecules. and Both intermolecular forces are exist between HCl. it occur specially in polar molecules.
What is the intermolecular forces of NH3, H2O, and HF?
In both cases, hydrogen bonds are generated between molecules. hydrogen bonds are also know as strongest intermolecular forces.
For example; – NH3 , H2O , HF
1. NH3 – nh3 intermolecular forces has hydrogen bonds and dipole Dipole forces.
We know that, hydrogen bond occur between nh3 molecules because if you look at the structure of nh3, hydrogen are directly attached with high electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N). and we know that, if any molecules bound to highly electronegative elements such as, N, O, and F then it make hydrogen bonds between molecules due to large difference of electronegativity. it mean, nitrogen is highly electronegative atom compare with hydrogen. Due to difference in electronegativity between two atoms., suc as, N and H.
You know that, the value of electronegative of nitrogen is 3.0 and the value electronegative of hydrogen is 2.2. it mean nitrogen has highly electronegative atoms compare with hydrogen. the difference of electronegativity between atoms is (0.8). therefore, the large difference in electronegativity between the N atom and H atom, N-O, N-F atoms leads to highly polar covalent bonds. so, you can say that, it is polar molecules. and it has hydrogen bonding.
According to above information, this molecules is highly polarized molecules. in this case, partial positive charge appear on hydrogen and partial negative charge appear on nitrogen. there are two highly polarized molecules. and both are attract each other. partial positive charge of hydrogen are attracted with partial negative charge of other molecules. As a result attraction forces is produced between them. this type of forces is called hydrogen bonding and dipole dipole forces forces also occur between molecules. H2O – hydrogen bonds are generated between h2o molecules.
2. H2O – hydrogen bonds occur between H2O molecules. but how?
Let’s know with examples.
You know that, oxygen is highly electronegative atoms. it has ability to except electrons. whereas hydrogen has less Electronegativity. due to this, negative charge appear on oxygen atoms and positive charge appear on hydrogen atoms. As a results attract each other and special type forces are generated. this force is called hydrogen bonding.
3. HF – hydrogen bonds are generated between H-F molecules.
hydrogen fluoride (HF molecules), it is chemically bounded due to covalent bond. it is share one pair of electrons and form a single molecules of hydrogen fluoride. hydrogen is directly attached with high electronegative atom(F). fluorine is highly electronegative atom compare with hydrogen. and the Electronegativity of fluorine atoms is 4.0 and Electronegativity of hydrogen is 2.1 and difference is (1.9). Due to large difference in Electronegativity. As a result dipole dipole forces occur between hydrogen fluoride atoms.
You know that, hydrogen fluoride is a dipole because it has positive pole and negative pole. due to this hydrogen fluoride ia dipole. take another hydrogen fluoride, it is also a dipole because it has also negative pole a d positive pole. it mean you have two dipole, negative pole of one dipole are attract to positive pole of another dipole. this attraction is know as dipole dipole attraction. As shown in figure.
it is highly polarized molecules. due Electronegativity difference partial negative charge appear on fluorine and partial positive charge appear on hydrogen. there are two polarized molecules in which they attracted partial negative charge to partial positive charge. As a result attractive force is produce that forces is called dipole dipole forces.