Hello, reders welcome to another fresh article. here, we will discuss about, what is the intermolecular forces of nh3 molecules. Also covered about, different types of intermolecular forces, polarity and FAQ.
so, hold your seat end of out, because we will provide valuable information regarding this topic.
So, read complete article, you got better knowledge regarding this topic.
Lets get started,
What is intermolecular forces?
Intermolecular forces are the forces which mediate attraction between molecules in a substance. this forces are also mediate force of attraction and repulsion between molecules of a substance. this type of forces are called intermolecular forces. it attract between partial negative end of one molecules to partial positive end of another molecules.
What are the intermolecular forces of NH3?
The Intermolecular forces are occur between nh3 (ammonia) molecules. it genrate hydrogen bonding and dipole dipole intraction. It make N-H bonds due to hydrogen are directly attached with nitrogen. In this molecules, hydrogen are directly connected with nitrogen. but nitrogen has highly electronegative value. so, large difference of electronegativity between nitrogen and hydrogen. due to this, partial negative charge appear on nitrogen and partial positive charge appear on hydrogen. due to this it attract each other. As a result, hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and london dispersion forces are generate between molecules. nh3 intermolecular forces has hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole intraction and london dispersion forces. this type of forces occur between nh3 molecules. nh3 molecules generate three different type of intermolecular forces, Such as, hydrogen bonding, dipole dipole intraction and london dispersion forces.
Lets know in details, how this type of interaction occur between nh3 molecules.
There are three main major intermolecular forces occur between nh3 molecules such as,
• Hydrogen bonding
• Dipole-dipole intraction
• London dispersion forces
Yes, it is true, hydrogen bonding is strongest intermolecular forces compare with all. In case of nh3, (N-H bonds makes between molecules) and dipole dipole interaction (interaction between two dipole) and london dispersion forces occur between nh3 molecules. this types of intermolecular forces are generated between nh3 molecules. Let’s know in details about intermolecular forces such as, (hydrogen bonding and dipole dipole intraction, london dispersion forces).
1. Hydrogen bonding
Yes, hydrogen bonding occur between two nh3 molecules because if you look at the structure of nh3, hydrogen are directly attached with high electronegative atom such as Nitrogen. We know that, if any molecules bound to highly electronegative elements then they generate hydrogen bonds between two molecules such as, N-H, H-O, and H-F then it makes hydrogen bond between molecules.
Due to large difference of electronegativity. negative charge is appear on nitrogen and positive charge is appear on hydrogen. due to this both atoms are attract each other. and due to this attraction hydrogen bonds are generated between molecules. Due to this reson nh3 molecules are a polar molecules but if any body may asked about polarity with you that nh3 polar or nonpolar then you can say that nh3 is polar molecules, this is write answer because it has two poles due to this it attract each other. According to difference in electronegativity between two atoms., suc as, N and H. you know that, the value of electronegative of nitrogen is 3.0 and the value electronegative of hydrogen is 2.2. it mean nitrogen has highly electronegative atoms compare with hydrogen. the difference of electronegativity between atoms is (0.8). therefore, the large difference in electronegativity between the N atom and H atom, N-O, N-F atoms leads to highly polar covalent bond. so, you can say that, polar molecules generated hydrogen bonding.
let’s know with examples,
• Hydrogen attached to an element with high electronegative atom such as, N, O, F.
• the element has at least one loan pair electron.
As a result, this molecules is called highly polarized molecules. in this case, partial positive charge appear on hydrogen and partial negative chare appear on nitrogen. there are two highly polarized molecules. and both are attract each other. partial positive charge of hydrogen are attracted with partial negative charge of other molecules. As a result attraction forces is produced between them. this type of forces is called hydrogen bonding. hydrogen bonding is also called intermolecular forces between two molecules.
Hydrogen bonds also occur between hydrogen fluoride molecules. and atmos are bound to highly electronegative elements. and it has available loan pair electron. therefore, it is more possibility to make hydrogen bonding.
let’s know with another examples,
For other example, (H.F, Hydrogen fluoride)
HF – in case of hydrogen fluoride (HF molecules), it is chemically bounded due to covalent bond. it is share one pair of electrons and form a single molecules of hydrogen fluoride. hydrogen is directly attached with high electronegative atom(F). fluorine is highly electronegative atom compare with hydrogen. the Electronegativity of fluorine is 4.0 and Electronegativity of hydrogen is 2.1 and difference is (1.9). Due to large difference in Electronegativity. As a result hydrogen bonding occur between hydrogen fluoride atoms.
therefore, we can say that it is highly polarized molecules. partial negative charge appear on fluorine and partial positive charge appear on hydrogen. there are two polarized molecules in which they attracted partial negative charge to partial positive charge. As a result attractive force is produce that forces is called hydrogen bonding.
Due to all above explanation, we can say that, hydrogen bond are the strongest intermolecular forces.
Check Also – What intermolecular forces are persent in CH4?
Dipole-dipole intraction are attracted among polarized molecules. we know that polarized molecules has two poles, partial positive pole and partial negative pole. therefore it is called polarized dipole. Actually, this dipole dipole intraction occur between two polarized molecules or between two polarized dipoles.
Consider the one dipole, it has two pole partial positive pole and partial negative poles. consider another dipole it has also two poles, partial positive pole and partial negative poles, we has two dipoles. So, the negative pole of one molecules attracted the positive pole of another molecules. due to this attractive forces are produces. this attractive forces is called dipole dipole intraction.
For example – HCl
In case of HCl molecules, it has also two polarized poles. One is partial positive and another is partial negative, due to this it attack each other. So, hcl intermolecular fores, has also dipole dipole intraction. Mainly, this dipole-dipole intraction is occur on polarized molecules.
This molecules is a polar molecules. because chlorine has highly electronegative than hydrogen.
So, we can say that it has dipole dipole intraction.
For examples, (H F, hydrogen fluoride)
Similarly, consider the single molecules of hydrogen fluoride. you know that it is dipole because it has two pole partial positive pole and partial negative pole.
Consider another molecules of hydrogen fluoride, these are also a dipole because it has two pole partial positive pole and partial negative pole.
Now, it has two dipole as shown in figure.
the negative pole of one molecules attracted to positive pole of another molecules. due to this attractive forces produced between this two dipoles, this type of forces is called dipole-dipole intraction.
electronegativity is difference between H and F. so, it is a polar molecules and polar molecules have permanent dipoles and it is make covalent bond. they attract partial positive end of one polar molecules to the partial negative end of another polar molecules. therefore, we can say that, hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole intraction are also occur in H.F ,N-H molecules.
You can identify bond type by the following electron difference such as,
> 2.0 – ionic
0.5 to 2.0 – polar covalent
< 0.5 – nonpolar covalent
Here, in case of nh3 molecules, the large difference of electronegativity (0.8) occur between the N atom and H atom. and due to above information we can say that it is polar covalent. and due to highly electronegativity atom like nitrogen (N) are directly connected with hydrogen (H). and it make N-H bond. this reson, dipole-dipole intraction and hydrogen bonding occur between nh3 molecules.
In case of NH3, both dipole-dipole intraction and hydrogen bonding are persent as well. you know that hclo intermolecular forces has also dipole-dipole intraction. if you talk about london dispersion forces, it is temporary dipoles, reson is, distribution of electron is not well on molecules. but london dispersion force is not high attraction then dipole – dipole intraction.
Some common weaker types of intermolecular force of attraction which form within molecules. such as, covalent bond, ionic bond, coordination bond. but these force are weaker then intermolecular force. intermolecular forces are responsible for the liquid, solid, and solution state of any type of compound.
London dispersion forces
The molecules overall is non polar then it is only intermolecular forces is the London dispersion forces. as you will remember this(LDF) is the weakest intermolecular forces.
You know, london dispersion forces is not operate long distance, it is oprate short distance. it creat temporary positive to temporary negative charged. London dispersion forces is a weak force compare with dipole-dipole intraction.
Yes, Helium is one type of noble gas elements. helium has no any attractive forces. this mean, there are no any attractive forces exist in helium.
So, Helium has london dispersion forces which is the weakest intermolecular forces compare with hydrogen bond and dipole dipole intraction.
Read More – What is the intermolecular forces of CH3OH?
Types of intermolecular forces
- London dispersion forces
- Dipole-dipole intraction
- Hydrogen bonding
- Ion-ion force
London dispersion forces – london dispersion forces is one type of weakest intermolecular forces compare with hydrogen bond. london dispersion forces occur mainly non polar molecules.
Dipole-dipole intraction – Dipole-dipole force are more attractive among polar molecules. the dipole-dipole force is more interactive take place on polarized molecules. dipole-dipole force occur between two dipole. the partial positive pole of one dipole to partial negative pole of another dipole. as a results, attractive forces is produce. this forces is called dipole dipole intraction. therefore, we can say that nh3 molecules has hydrogen bonding or dipole-dipole force.
For example – HCl (Hypo chloride) – In case of hcl molecules, it has also dipole dipole intraction. dipole-dipole intraction is occur on polar molecules. this molecules is also a polar molecules. because chlorine has highly electronegative than hydrogen. So, we can say that it is more attraction on polar molecules.
Hydrogen bonding – hydrogen bond is not chemical bond. it is intermolecular forces between molecules. hydrogen bond and dipole-dipole forces both are intermolecular forces between molecules. but in both hydrogen bond and dipole-dipole forces which one is more stronger hydrogen bond is 10 times stronger then all dipole-dipole forces.
Hydrogen bond exist only in those type of molecules like – H2O, NH3, HF.
H2O – hydrogen bond exist between molecules of water.
NH3 – hydrogen bond exist between molecules of ammonia.
HF – hydrogen bond exist between molecules of hydrogen floride.
Ion ion force – ion ion forces, it mean that force of attraction between two ion. ion ion force of attraction occur between two ion in which ion has net parmanent charge.
the sutable example is (na+)………..(cl-). sodium has positive charge and chlorine has negative charge. it attract between two ion. this is called ion ion force.
Read More – What is the intermolecular forces of HClO?
Shape of molecules
There are many examples are given,
All molecules are generated different shape and different intermolecular forces.
let’s know with examples
1. SO2 – Molecular shape of SO2 is bent. First you draw Lewis structure of SO2. It help to understand about molecules.
If you see carefully this structure. You can say that, It is not symmetric. it contains polar molecules. so you can say that it has not possibility to hydrogen bonding. It has more possibility to dipole-dipole intraction. therefore, the intermolecular forces of SO2 is dipole dipole-dipole intraction.
2. SCO – the shape of SCO molecules is linear. In this case, the out side atoms are identical would be symmetrical but in case of SCO you have two different atoms on the ends and a sulphur. it is clear from Lewis structure of SCO.
So, it is not symmetric. therefore, it is polar molecules. there are no, hydrogen’s. So, the main intermolecular forces of SCO is dipole-dipole intraction.
3. CO2 – it is similar to SCO molecules. first you draw Lewis structure of CO2.
It is more similar to SCO molecules. Both molecules are linier. in this case though you have oxygens on both ends of molecules. the structure is symmetrical and therefore, carbon dioxide is nonpolar molecules. there is no net polarity to carbon dioxide and it only has London dispersion forces.
4. H2O – the molecular shape of H2O is also bent as show in figure.
water is not symmetrical, therefore it is polar molecules. but it contains OH bond. Oxygen is directly bonded to hydrogen. so, it is highly possibility to hydrogen bonding. therefore, you can say that the intermolecular forces of H2O is hydrogen bonding.
Read More:- What is the intermolecular forces of CO?
Boiling point of molecules
“If strength of molecules increase then boiling point of molecules also increase”.
London dispersion forces > dipole-dipole > hydrogen bonding.
So, the increase strength london dispersion forces to hydrogen bonding, it is also increasing boiling point.
this sequence are weakest to strongest intermolecular forces.
For weakest IMF – lower boiling point
For strongest IMF – higher boiling point
If two compound have same intermolecular forces then the number of electrons increase the boiling point.
Number of electrons = increase boiling point
NH3 Polar or Non Polar?
Yes, nh3 is polar molecules because of the electronegativity. this mean, difference in electronegativity. first identify which atoms has more electronegative. nitrogen has more electronegativity compare with hydrogen. therefore, we can say that, if any atom has higher the electronegativity then higher the possibility of polarity.
If we talking about Electronegativity of nitrogen and hydrogen.
You know that,
Electronegativity of Nitrogen is – 3
Electronegativity of hydrogen is – 2.1
Difference between them is, – 0.1
So, we can say that the electronegativity of nitrogen atom is more then hydrogen atoms. electronegativity is different between them, so due to this, we can say that, nh3 is polar molecules.
According to structure, we can see that the nitrogen atoms polling on the electron that is sharing electron with hydrogen atoms. and nitrogen has one loan pair. and three hydrogen atoms are connect with central atoms (nitrogen).
So, According to above explanation, it is clear that the nh3 is a polar molecules.
Frequently Asked question
1. Why NH3 is called dipole-dipole?
You know that, ammonia is a polar molecules. it exhibits, dipole-dipole intraction, induced attraction, and London dispersion forces. NH3 is called dipole dipole because nh3 make N-H bond, it directly make hydrogen bonding. hydrogen is bound to nitrogen and it make hydrogen bonds properly. So, this reason it is called dipole dipole.
2. What is the intermolecular forces of NH3?
Ammonia (NH3) is make hydrogen bonding and it effect extensive hydrogen bonding between molecules. in case of NH3, the main type of intermolecular forces is;
(a) London dispersion forces
(b) dipole-dipole interaction
(c) hydrogen bonding
these type of forces is easy to change polarity of atoms. So, ammonia has these type of forces and it make directly hydrogen bonding.
3. Which type of intermolecular forces exist in cl2 and ccl4?
Actually, London dispersion forces exist in Cl2 and CCl4 because both are non polar. due to this reson ldf intermolecular forces exist in Cl2 and CCl4.
4. What are three main intermolecular forces?
the main intermolecular forces is,
(a) dipole-dipole intermolecular forces
(b) London dispersion forces
(c) hydrogen bonding
these are the main or strongest intermolecular forces.
5. Which of the following exhibit the weakest intermolecular forces?
know that, there are three main major intermolecular forces that act on the molecules such as, hydrogen bonding (H2O,NH3) dipole dipole dipole intraction (HCl) and london dispersion forces (weakest intermolecular forces) (He). so, the write answer is (He, Ne, nobel gas) Now, we are explain in details about such types of intermolecular forces. we can find which one is the strongest intermolecular forces and which one is the weakest from this explanations.