Hydrogen bonding is one type of dipole dipole interaction. hydrogen bonding is formed when the electronegativity difference between two atoms.

For best example is,

NH3 (Ammonia) , H.F (Hydrogen Floride) , CH3OH (Methanol)

NH3 (Ammonia)

Yes, it is absolutely true hydrogen bonding occur between two ammonia molecules because if you look at the structure of nh3 (ammonia), hydrogen are directly attached with nitrogen (high electronegative atom).

We know that, if any molecules bound to highly electronegative elements then they generate strongest intermolecular forces such as, hydrogen bonds between two molecules such as, N-H, H-O, and H-F then it makes hydrogen bond between molecules. and this types of intermolecular forces is called strongest intermolecular forces, for another example, H2O, CH3OH.


Due to large difference of electronegativity. negative charge is appear on nitrogen and positive charge is appear on hydrogen. due to this both atoms are attract each other. and due to this attraction hydrogen bonds are generated between molecules. Due to this reson nh3 molecules are a polar molecules but if any body may asked about polarity with you that nh3 polar or nonpolar then you can say that nh3 is polar molecules, this is write answer because it has two poles due to this it attract each other.

According to difference in electronegativity between two atoms., suc as, N and H. you know that, the value of electronegative of nitrogen is 3.0 and the value electronegative of hydrogen is 2.2. it mean nitrogen has highly electronegative atoms compare with hydrogen. the difference of electronegativity between atoms is (0.8). therefore, the large difference in electronegativity between the N atom and H atom, N-O, N-F atoms leads to highly polar covalent bond. so, you can say that, polar molecules generated hydrogen bonding.

As a result, this molecules is called highly polarized molecules. in this case, partial positive charge appear on hydrogen and partial negative chare appear on nitrogen. there are two highly polarized molecules. and both are attract each other. partial positive charge of hydrogen are attracted with partial negative charge of other molecules. As a result attraction forces is produced between them. this type of forces is called hydrogen bonding. hydrogen bonding is also called stronger intermolecular forces between two molecules.

Important points,

Hydrogen attached to an element with high electronegative atom such as, N, O, F.

The element has at least one loan pair electron.

For another example,

H-F (Hydrogen fluoride)

Hydrogen bonds also occur between hydrogen fluoride molecules. and atmos are bound to highly electronegative elements. it has available loan pair electron. therefore, it is more possibility to make hydrogen bonding.

lets know with structure,


hydrogen bonding

Hydrogen bond also occur between H-F molecules. Hydrogen bond are the strongest intermolecular forces. in case of hydrogen fluoride (HF molecules), it is chemically bounded due to covalent bond. it is share one pair of electrons and form a single molecules of hydrogen fluoride. hydrogen is directly attached with high electronegative atom(F). fluorine is highly electronegative atom compare with hydrogen. the electronegativity of fluorine is 4.0 and Electronegativity of hydrogen is 2.1 and difference is (1.9). Due to large difference in Electronegativity. As a result hydrogen bonding occur between hydrogen fluoride atoms.

Therefore, we can say that it is highly polarized molecules. partial negative charge appear on fluorine and partial positive charge appear on hydrogen. there are two polarized molecules in which they attracted partial negative charge to partial positive charge. As a result attractive force is produce that forces is called hydrogen bonding.

For another example,

CH3OH (Methanol)


Hydrogen bonding are present between two methanol molecules. because the oxygen is directly attached to hydrogen and due to this hydrogen bonding form. this forces is called strong intermolecular forces and it occur between oxygen and hydrogen. You know that oxygen is highly electronegativity atoms compare with hydrogen.due to this, oxygen has partial negative charge whereas hydrogen has partial positive charge. According to this, both atoms are attracted each other. As a results hydrogen bonding occur between this two methanol molecule. and in case of ethanol molecules there same types of intermolecular occur between two ethanol molecules. The intermolecular forces of ethanol are, hydrogen bonding, dipole dipole forces. and i meant to say that the ethanol intermolecular forces are hydrogen bonding, dipole dipole interaction. this mean, the same intermolecular forces occur between, two methanol or ethanol molecules.

Dipole-Dipole intraction.

Dipole dipole intraction or dipole dipole forces are stronger intermolecular forces. it occur on polar molecules. because polar molecules have permanent dipoles that are formed due to difference in electron of the atoms that are associated with covalent bonds. due to this, the parial positive portion of one molecules is attracted to the partial negative of another molecules.

Dipole-dipole intraction are attracted among polarized molecules. we know that polarized molecules has two poles, partial positive pole and partial negative pole. therefore it is called polarized dipole. Actually, this dipole dipole intraction occur between two polarized molecules or between two polarized dipoles.

Consider the one dipole, it has two pole partial positive pole and partial negative poles. consider another dipole it has also two poles, partial positive pole and partial negative poles, we has two dipoles. So, the negative pole of one molecules attracted the positive pole of another molecules. due to this attractive forces are produces. this attractive forces is called dipole dipole intraction.

For example,


In case of HCl molecules, it has also two polarized poles. One is partial positive and another is partial negative, due to this it attack each other. So, hcl intermolecular fores, has also dipole dipole intraction. Mainly, this dipole-dipole intraction is occur on polarized molecules.

This molecules is a polar molecules. because chlorine has highly electronegative than hydrogen.

HCl are made “polar covalent bonds” when atoms share electrons between hydrogen and chloride. Polar covalent bonds atoms such as hydrogen and chloride. HCl is made covalent bonds not hydrogen bonds. Because covalent bonds made in the presence of sharing of electrons between hydrogen and chloride. hydrogen bonds are made if hydrogen are bound to strong electronegative elements such as, Nitrogen, oxygen, fluoride. but HCl intermolecular forces has dipole dipole interaction and London dispersion forces.

Cl is highly electronegative atoms compare with hydrogen. that why, partial negative charge are appear on Cl and partial positive charge appear on hydrogen. Due to this, both atoms interact each other and it generated dipole dipole forces and London dispersion forces. the hcl intermolecular forces are dipole dipole intraction, because it is a polar molecules. the dipole dipole interaction are more attracted on polar molecules. it is one type of strongest intermolecular forces of attraction. the intermolecular forces in hydrogen chloride are made as intermolecular hydrogen bonding. it is occur if H (hydrogen) is bound to strongly electronegative elements. nitrogen and oxygen is a one type of strongest electronegative elements. If it is bound to (N) nitrogen or (O) oxygen then it make hydrogen bonding otherwise it can’t be made hydrogen bonding.


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