Hello, reders welcome to “chemwhite.com” today I am going to explain about different ligands such as unidentate, didentate and ambidentate ligands.
lets get started,
What is unidentate ligands?
Molecules have only one donor atom is called unidentate ligands such as ammonia, water, and CO.
this molecules have only one loan pair and only one donor atom (N). so we can say that ammonia molecules is unidentate ligands.
The negative ion or neutral molecules such as ammonia, water. this type of molecules have capability to manage only one donor atom, due to this reason, we can say, this is unidentate ligands.
similarly, we can say that wate molecules have only one donor atom (O oxygen). Here, oxygen have two loan pair but it donate only one loan pair, this is the reason it is know as monodentate ligands or unidentate ligands.
Bidentate or Didentate ligands
Molecules have two donor atoms are called bidentate/ didentate ligands. such as ethylene diamine.
Due to structure of ethylene diamine, there are two donor atoms (both N) are present in this compound. so, we can say that this is bidentate ligands. it is clearly show in structure.
Ambidentate ligands is one type of ligands in which it can ligate through two different atoms is called ambidentate ligands.
If we are talking about NO2- molecules in which this molecules can coordinate with nitrogen or with oxygen.
If we are talking about CSN- ions, this type of molecules can also coordinate with sulphur and nitrogen atoms.
Types of ligands
1. Menodentate ligands/ Unidentate ligands.
2. Polydentate ligands
(a) Bidentate ligands
(b) Tridentate ligands
(c) Tetradentate ligands
(d) Pentadentate ligands
(e) Hexadentate ligands
1. Menodentate ligands/ unidentate ligands
It is define as, if molecules have only one donor atom, and only one donor atom present in molecules, this type of molecules is called menodentate ligands Or unidentate ligands.
2. Polydentate ligands
Bidentate ligands – It is define as, If molecules have two donor atom or if two donor atom persent in this molecules. then this type of molecules is known as bidentate ligands. you can understand with help of example or chemical structure.
(a) Carbonate ion
According to this structure, it is clear, there are two donor atom (both O) is persent in carbonate ion. If two donor atom are persent, due to this, it is bidentate ligands.
Tridentate ligands – It is define as, If molecules have three donor atom or if molecules have capability to reach three donor atom. then we can say that this type of molecules is tridentate ligands. you can understand with proper examples and chemical structure.
(a) Diethylene tridiamine (dien)
Tetradentate ligands – It is define as, molecules have four donor atom. if four donor atom are persent in molecules then this type of molecules is known as tetradentate ligands.
(a) Nitro acetate
Pentadentate ligands – It is define as If molecules have 5 donor atom. this is called pentadentate ligands. if 5 donor atoms are persent in molecules then this is know as pentadentate ligands.
(a) Ethylene diamine tri acetate ion
Hexadentante ligands – It is define as, If 6 donor atom are persent in molecules then this is know as hexadentante ligands.
for best examples are,
(a) ethylene diamine tetra acetate ion