NH3 molecules are made from one atom of nitrogen and three atom of hydrogen. it is white colourless chemical liquid with chemical formula nh3.

What is NH3?

it is colourless liquid with the formula nh3. it has bond angle around 107°.


NH3 molecule are formed from the combination of one atom of nitrogen and three atom of hydrogen. it is denoted by the symbole nh3.

This mean, it consist nitrogen and hydrogen. it is inorganic compound has pungent smell.

It is one type of gas with a chemical formula nh3. it is lighter then air because the density of nh3 is 0.769 kg/m3 at stp.

It is also called ammonium hydroxide. the bond angle is around 107.8 and it is windy used in agriculture department as a fertilizer.


NH3 Structure

ammonia structure

NH3 Properties

Chemical name – nh3 (ammonia)

Molecular weight – 7.031 g/mol

Density – 0.73 kg/m3

Boiling point – -33.34°C

Melting point – – 77.75°C

NH3 Preparation:

By Labroteary methods;

Let’s go to know, how to prepared Ammonia gas by laboratory methods,

Ammonia gas are prepared in the laboratory by heating ammonium salt (sodium chloride) with the help of stronger alkali. such as sodium hydroxide and calsium hydroxide.

The preparation of nh3 gas is simply done in the laboratory by heating ammonium salt with stronger alkali.

But it is also done by haber process. this process is more helped for preparation of ammonia gas. If we are follow this process then you can easily prepared ammonia gas.

First, take ammonium salt (calsium chloride) with strong alkali such as, calsium hydroxide, ca(oh)2 and sodium hydroxide.

You know, all ammonium salt and alkalis reaction, it release nh3 gas when heated with a strong alkali, such as, calsium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide.

Alkali is important role for preparation of nh3 gas. Yes, it play important role in the preparation of nh3 gas.

When, Alkali react with ammonium salt to release ammonia gas.

Actually, when the alkali react with ammonium ions, during reaction hydroxide ions will snatch a hydrogen back from ammonium ions. and reforming ammonia and water.

When ammonium salt (calsium chloride) is heated with strong alkali. then we get ammonia gas. according to this reaction, simply we get nh3 in the form of gas.

Actually, preparation of ammonia gas is possible using stronger alkali like, sodium hydroxide or calsium hydroxide. we does not get ammonia gas without strong alkali.

So, the role of alkali is very important for the preparation of ammonia gas.

Lets go to know about strong alkali, such as, calsium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide.

Calsium hydroxide

It is inorganic compound with the formula Ca(OH)2.

It has white powdery appearance in solid state. but it is colourless appearance in it crystalline form.

it is very important compound in the preparation of ammonia gas.

It is used as a ph modifier due to basicity and plastic industry.

Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH.

It is found in the form of white solid at room temperature.

It consist Na+ cations and hydroxide OH- anions.

It is also commonly know as caustic soda. it is mostly use for the preparation of detergent, soap, paper, water treatment.

it is also use in many textile industry and also use in other chemical preparation.

Role of calsium oxide in the preparation of ammonia gas.

Actually, it is true, calsium oxide that is play very important role in the preparation of ammonia gas.

There are two different way to help (work) in the production of ammonia gas.

1. Act as a reactant, in the production of ammonia gas.

2. Act as a absorbing moisture during reaction.

Sodium oxide work as a reactant and drying agent during the reaction.

When ammonia chloride react with calsium oxide, as a result, ammonia gas is released.

The reaction is,

NH4Cl + CaO – CaCl2 + NH3 + H20

But Due to reaction, some ammount of water is also formed in reaction, in the form of moisture. but it is clear from sodium oxide. and only ammonia gas is released. it is possible with only sodium oxide.

so, we can say, that it is play very important role in the production of ammonia gas.

Which dehydrating agent is used to absorbed moisture from ammonia gas?

It can be separated of all the moisture from ammonia gas with calsium oxide (CaO).

Why dehydrating agent, like CaO (lime) are used why not other dehydrating agent are used like, conc H2SO4, CaCl2, and P2O5?

Yes, it is true that only Calsium oxide (CaO) is used form absorbed moisture during process not other because

If we are talking about conc H2SO4 and P2O5 both are acidic and nh3 are basic, it give salt.

If we are talking about, CaCl2, they combined with ammonia as a result, additional products is formed.

The reaction is,

1. NH3 + H2SO4 – (NH4)2 SO4

2. NH3 + CaCl2 – CaCl2 8NH3

3. P2O5 + NH3 + H2O – (NH4)3PO4

Why ammonia gas is not stored on water?

Reson is, Ammonia gas has much more solubility activity. that is the only reson, that it is not stored on water.

Why, ammonia gas is collected in chamber by tumble displacement of Air?

If we are talking about molecular wait of nh3 molecules is 17. but the molecular weight of Air,

1. The components of Air

(a) Nitrogen (mass) – 28

(b) oxygen (mass) – 32

(c) CO2 (mass) – 44

Higher mass in air.

2. NH3 (Ammonia) (mass) – Only 17

Mass is not higher.

According to difference of both the mass, we can say that ammonia is lighter then air.

Due to this reson, ammonia gas is collected in chamber by tumble displacement of air.

NH3 (Ammonia) Uses:

1. Ammonia is mostly used for the treatment textile materials.

Actually, liquid ammonia is used for the treatment of textile goods.

The liquid ammonia treatment of cotton fabric improve softness of hand.

This treatment change crystalline structure from cellulose I to III.

The treatment of cellulose fabric with liquid ammonia, this treatment effect show at the time of Mercerising treatment.

Actually, this treatment on textile materials, gives lusture and softness on the surface of textile goods.

2. Ammonia is also used for preparation of sada ash.

Yes, it is absolutely true, Lime stone (CaCO3) to produce CO2 which react with ammonia (nh3) dissolve in aq (NaCl concentrated) to produce sodium carbonate (Na2CO3).

The chemical formula of sodium carbonate is (Na2CO3).

It has a high pH – 11.6

Soda ash is typically prepared with the help of solvay process.

3. Ammonia is used for the treatment of drinking water.

The role of ammonia is very important for cleaning drinking water.

This mean, ammonia is key of cleaning drinking water.

Ammonia is the preferred nitrogen – containing nutrients for the plant growth.

Ammonia can be converted to Nitrite and nitrate by bacteria. and used by plants.

You know that, it is form nitrogen in aquatic systems.

4. Ammonia is used for preparation of nitrocellulose.

Yes, ammonia help for the preparation of nitrocellulose or cotton goods.

5. Ammonia is mostly used in houshold.

Yes, ammonia is used as a cleaner. it is used in household for cleaning purpose. when nh3 combine with water as a result cleaning solution are formed. this solution are mostly used for cleaning on stainless steel materials as well as glass materials. it is best solution for cleaning materials in household.

6. Ammonia is used in large scale in textile industry.

7. NH3 is mostly Used as a antimicrobial agents in food products.

8. NH3 is used to neutralize Pollounts such as, nitrogen oxides. this type of gases are normally neutralize from nh3.

9. It is used as PH adjuster during the fermentation process.

10. Ammonia is used in large scale in agriculture (fertilizer). it give more help in food production.

Question and Answers

1. What is the chemical formula and molar mass of ammonia?

The chemical formula of ammonia is NH3 and the molar mass of ammonia molecules is 17.031 g/mol.

2. What are the main uses in large scale of ammonia molecules?

Actually, 90℅ of ammonia are uses in agriculture industry. and mostly use as a fertilizer.

Yes, it is absolutely true, the main uses of ammonia in large scale is in agriculture Department.

it help to improve quality of agriculture soil. It gives nitrogen content soil. this soil are mostly use in plantation 🌱 and many other process in agriculture department.

3. Where can ammonia found naturally?

Actually, ammonia produce with different way, this mean, artificial or natural, mostly it produce naturally,

for example,

Ammonia generate naturally with different way, such as,

  1. Waste vegetables.
  2. From Air.
  3. From human body.
  4. Animal waste.
  5. From soil.

Now a days, ammonia can also produce/ made artificially.

Here, i m not going to explain about, how to produce ammonia artificially?, but i will covered in next article.

4. How is uses of ammonia in textile industry?

Ammonia is used in textile industry with different ways, such as,

  1. Ammonia can help for production of other chemical which is used in textile sector.
  2. Ammonia is used for chemical synthesis in chemical industry.
  3. Ammonia is used for colouring of textile goods.
  4. Ammonia can help of production of different dyes.
  5. Ammonia (liquid) is used in tanning industry as well as manufacturing of colour/dyes.
  6. Ammonia can help for cleaning of textile materials. It is as a cleaning solution for laundry department.
  7. Ammonia solution (ammonia + water) is used for cleaning glass materials.
  8. Ammonia (25℅ ammonia) is used for textile industry for cleaning of textile goods.

Also check

1. Is nh3 polar or nonpolar? nh3 intermolecular forces, nh3 charge, nh3 bond angle and detailed facts?

2. What is the intermolecular forces of nh3 (ammonia)?,detailed facts?


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