Which type of intermolecular forces exist in Cl2 and CCl4?
The exact answer of this question is, the intermolecular forces of cl2 and ccl4 is london dispersion forces.
Yes, london dispersion forces exist in Cl2, CCl4, and He.
What are the intermolecular forces?
Intermolecular forces are the forces which mediate attraction between molecule of a substance. this forces also mediate force of attraction and repulsion between molecules. it is called intermolecular forces. it attract between the partial negative (-) end of one molecules to partial positive (+) end of another molecules.
Which type of intermolecular forces exist in Cl2 and CCl4?
London dispersion forces type intermolecular forces exist in cl2 and ccl4 molecules. but it is depends upon molecules because different molecules exist different type of intermolecular forces.
1. Cl2 (Cl2 intermolecular forces)
If we are taking about Cl2 molecules, you know, this molecules is a non polar molecules. In non polar molecules, such as Cl2. it exist only london dispersion forces. this forces is called as a weakest intermolecular forces.
lets know in details, with the help of structure;
London dispersion forces is a temporary dipole. this mean, it is work as temporary dipole in molecules. it can occur in non polar molecules (cl2). Induced a dipole in neighboring molecules.
In this molecules (cl2) there is no any dipole to attract each other. this mean, in any non polar molecules has no any dipole, this is the reason it not attract each other properly.
So, this molecules occur london dispersion forces.
2. CCl4 (CCl4 intermolecular forces)
If we are taking about CCl4, this type of molecules overall is non polar then it is only intermolecular forces is the london dispersion forces. london dispersion forces is not operate long distance, it is oprate short distance. it creat temporary positive to temporary negative charged. london dispersion forces is a weak force compare with dipole-dipole intraction.
In this molecules (CCl4) there is no any dipole to attract each other. this mean, in any non polar molecules has no any dipole, this is the reason it not attract each other properly.
So, CCl4 has london dispersion forces which is the weakest intermolecular forces compare with hydrogen bond and dipole dipole intraction.
3. He (Helium intermolecular forces)
Yes, helium is one type of noble gas elements. helium has no any attractive forces. this mean, there are no any attractive forces exist in helium.
In this molecules, only london dispersion forces occur in helium. there is no any other intermolecular forces occur. because there is no any dipole for attractions. there is no create any negative pole Or positive pole.
So, according to this, there is no interaction each other (between two dipole) this mean, it is called LDF. So, we can say that london dispersion forces occur in He.
Another Molecules for examples;
1. NH3 (NH3 intermolecular forces)
If we are taking about ammonia molecules, Ammonia (NH3) exist three different type of intermolecular forces. such as, hydrogen bond, dipole dipole interaction, and london dispersion forces.
Lets know in details,
There are three type of intermolecular forces occur in nh3 molecules, they are, hydrogen bonding dipole dipole interaction and london dispersion forces,
Now, first we are going to explain about hydrogen bonding,
Yes, hydrogen bonding occur between nh3 molecules because according to the structure of nh3, hydrogen are directly attached with high electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N). and we know that, if any molecules bound to highly electronegative elements then they generate hydrogen bonds between two molecules such as, N-H, H-O, and H-F then it makes hydrogen bond between molecules. due to large difference of electronegativity. negative charge is appear on nitrogen and positive charge is appear on hydrogen. due to this both atoms are attract each other. and due to this attraction hydrogen bonds are generated between molecules.
According to difference in electronegativity between two atoms., suc as, N and H. you know that, the value of electronegative of nitrogen is 3.0 and the value electronegative of hydrogen is 2.2. it mean nitrogen has highly electronegative atoms compare with hydrogen. the difference of electronegativity between atoms is (0.8). therefore, the large difference in electronegativity between the N atom and H atom, N-O, N-F atoms leads to highly polar covalent bond. so, you can say that, polar molecules generated hydrogen bonding.
As a result, this molecules is called highly polarized molecules. in this case, partial positive charge appear on hydrogen and partial negative chare appear on nitrogen. there are two highly polarized molecules. and both are attract each other. partial positive charge of hydrogen are attracted with partial negative charge of other molecules. As a result attraction forces is produced between them. this type of forces is called hydrogen bonding. hydrogen bonding is also called intermolecular forces between two molecules.
Now, we are going to explain about dipole dipole interaction in nh3 molecules.
Dipole-dipole intraction are attracted among polarized molecules. we know that polarized molecules has two poles partial positive pole and partial negative pole. therefore it is called dipole. dipole dipole intraction occur between two polarized molecules or between two polarized dipole.
If we are taking about one dipole, it has two pole partial positive pole and partial negative poles. consider another dipole it has also two poles, partial positive pole and partial negative poles, we has two dipoles. So, if we are talking about nh3 molecules, it has two pole, one is negative pole and another is positive pole, the negative pole of one molecules attracted the positive pole of another molecules. due to this attractive forces are produces. this attractive forces is called dipole dipole intraction.
finely, we are going to explain about, london dispersion forces, it is also occur in nh3 molecules.
If molecules overall is non polar then it is only intermolecular forces is the london dispersion forces. as you will remember this(LDF) is the weakest intermolecular forces.
You know, london dispersion forces is not operate long distance, it is oprate short distance. it creat temporary positive to temporary negative charged. London dispersion forces is a weak force compare with dipole-dipole intraction.
2. CH3OH (CH3OH intermolecular forces)
Ch3oh (methanol) has three different type of intermolecular forces are present. such as,
(a) Hydrogen bonding
(b) Dipole dipole interaction
(c) london dispersion forces
Yes, hydrogen bonding is present between two methanol molecules. because oxygen is directly attached to hydrogen and due to this hydrogen bonding occur between oxygen and hydrogen as shown in figure.
know that oxygen is highly electronegativity atoms compare with hydrogen.due to this, oxygen has partial negative charge whereas hydrogen has partial positive charge. according to this both atoms are attracted each other. As a results hydrogen bonding occur between this two molecule. You can understand properly with the help of chemical structure.
Dipole dipole interaction
dipole-dipole interaction occur in methanol because it creat dipole moment between molecules due to the presence of the electronegative oxygen atom.
electronegative atom which is oxygen that create a permanent positive charge on the molecules and rest of the molecules create partial positive. that create parmanent dipole within each of the methanol molecules with opposing charge. this type of interaction is called dipole-dipole interaction.
London dispersion forces
methanol are also generate london dispersion forces between two non polar molecules. basic concepts is this that the interaction between two non polar methanol molecules. it mean, one hydrogen atom of first methanol interacted with second hydrogen of second methanol molecules. But It generated very weak intermolecular forces. In other words, there is a one type of interaction between two methanol molecules in which very weak intermolecular forces are generated. and this weak interaction is know as london dispersion forces.
this interaction created between non polar molecules. this type of force is called london dispersion forces. So, we can say that, ch3oh intermolecular forces has also london dispersion forces.