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What is covalent bond?

The covalent bond formed by sharing of electrons between two element is known as covalent bond.

or,

The covalent bond is formed by sharing minimum one pair of electrons between atom is know as covalent bond.

or

The bond is formed between atom by sharing of electrons between two elements is known as covalent bond.

lets know with examples,

Carbon (c) is the best examples of covalent bond

You know that, the atomic number of carbon is 6.

And electron configuration of carbon is, 2, 4

This mean, 4 electrons is required to complete octet. But carbon not able to gain or loss 4 electrons to acquire noble gas configuration.

To achieve stable state for carbon, 4 electrons are required but carbon has not ability to gain or loss 4 electrons to complete octet.

So, carbon form covalent bond with hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and chlorine elements.

for example

  1. Carbon form covalent bond with oxygen elements. such as,

CO2

single bond

Types of covalent bond

  1. Single covalent bond
  2. Double covalent bond
  3. Triple covalent bond

Single covalent bond

• One pair of electrons is shared between atoms is know as single covalent bond.

• Sharing of one electrons pair between atoms.

for example,

covalent bond

• Sharing of one electrons pair between atoms.

Double covalent bond

• Two pairs of electrons shared between atoms is know as double covalent bond.

• It is denoted by two lines.

for example,

Oxygen

double bond

• In this case, two pairs of electrons is shared this means, four electrons are shared between atoms.

• According to sharing electrons, both the oxygen atoms contribute two electrons each.

• So, we can say that, two pairs of electrons is shared in the bond formation.

• Covalent bond say, minimum one pairs of electrons is shared for the formation of covalent bond.

• It is also a examples of covalent bond.

Triple covalent bond

• Three pairs of electrons is shared between atoms is know as triple covalent bond.

• It is denoted by three lines.

for examples,

Nitrogen,

triple bond

• 6 electrons are shared between two atoms of nitrogen, this mean three pairs of electrons is shared between two nitrogen atoms.

• According to this both the nitrogen atoms stable state.

Non – polar / 100% covalent bond

Sharing of electrons between two similar atoms. this mean if sharing of electrons between two similar atoms then this type bond is known as 100 % covalent bond. and it is also called non polar covalent bond.

for example,

Properties of covalent bond

  1. They are gases such as Co2.
  2. They are liquids, such as water, CCI4.
  3. They are soft solids such as, perafine wax.
  4. A covalent compound has low melting point. examples, ice melts at 0°C and H2O, CCI4, and CS2 are liquids. it melts at room temperature.
  5. A covalent compound has low boiling point. For examples, chloroform boils at 62°C. Benzene at 80.2°C.
  6. They are mostly soluble in organic solvents, like benzene, alcohol, acetone and water.
  7. In case of liquids or molton covalent compounds do not conduct electricity but aqueous of some compound do.
  8. For examples, HCI + H2O – H3O+ + CI -(hydronium ion).

Covalent bond is formed by

Covalent bond is formed bye sharing of electron between two elements. If it share one pair of electrons than it is denoted single bond. If it share two pair of electrons then it denoted with double bond. It mean, covalent bond is formed by sharing of electrons. and by sharing of electrons between atoms stability is also developed between atoms, this is the reason, it gain more stability between atoms. So, atoms will easily make covalent bond between atoms. and by sharing their outer most electrons, atoms can fill up their outer electrons shell and it gain proper stability.

so, you can say that, covalent bond is formed by sharing of electrons.

for examples,

H2, CI2, O2.

Covalent bond is formed between

The covalent bond is formed between atom, by sharing of electrons between two elements is known as covalent bond.

for examples, H2,

H. .H – H..H – { H _ H } that is known as covalent bond. it is demoted with single bonds.


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