NH3 intermolecular forces has hydrogen bonding and dipole dipole intraction . It has N-H bonds. nitrogen has highly electronegative value. so, large difference of electronegativity between nitrogen and hydrogen. as a result, hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole and London dispersion forces generated between this molecules.

Hello, reders welcome to another fresh article. here, you understand about the nh3 intermolecular forces, what is the actually intermolecular forces between nh3 molecules. Also know about, types, polarity and FAQ.

So, hold your seat end of out, because we will provide valuable information regarding this topic.

So, read complete article, you got better knowledge regarding this topic.

Let’s get started,

Read More:- What is the intermolecular forces of CH4?

What is intermolecular forces?

Intermolecular forces are the forces which mediate attraction between molecules. this forces are also mediate force of attraction and repulsion between molecules. this is called intermolecular forces. it attract between partial negative end of one molecules to partial positive end of another molecules.

Read More: – What are the intermolecular forces strongest to weakest?

What is the intermolecular forces of NH3?

nh3 intermolecular forces has hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole intraction and London dispersion forces. this type of forces is occur between molecules. nh3 molecules has three different type of intermolecular forces, Such as,

nh3 intermolecular forces

• Hydrogen bonding

• Dipole-dipole intraction

• London dispersion forces

Yes, it is true, hydrogen bonding (N-H bonds makes between molecules) and dipole dipole interaction (interaction between two dipole) and london dispersion forces occur between nh3 molecules. there are three different types of intermolecular forces are generated between nh3 molecules.

Now, let’s know about all the following terms, (both hydrogen bonding and dipole dipole intraction, London dispersion forces).

hydrogen bonding

Yes, hydrogen bonding occur between nh3 molecules because if you look at the structure of nh3, hydrogen are directly attached with high electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N). and we know that, if any molecules bound to highly electronegative elements then they generate hydrogen bonds between two molecules such as, N-H, H-O, and H-F then it makes hydrogen bond between molecules. due to large difference of electronegativity. negative charge is appear on nitrogen and positive charge is appear on hydrogen. due to this both atoms are attract each other. and due to this attraction hydrogen bonds are generated between molecules.

According to difference in electronegativity between two atoms., suc as, N and H. you know that, the value of electronegative of nitrogen is 3.0 and the value electronegative of hydrogen is 2.2. it mean nitrogen has highly electronegative atoms compare with hydrogen. the difference of electronegativity between atoms is (0.8). therefore, the large difference in electronegativity between the N atom and H atom, N-O, N-F atoms leads to highly polar covalent bond. so, you can say that, polar molecules generated hydrogen bonding.

let’s know with examples,

• Hydrogen attached to an element with high electronegative atom such as, N, O, F.

• the element has at least one loan pair electron.

As a result, this molecules is called highly polarized molecules. in this case, partial positive charge appear on hydrogen and partial negative chare appear on nitrogen. there are two highly polarized molecules. and both are attract each other. partial positive charge of hydrogen are attracted with partial negative charge of other molecules. As a result attraction forces is produced between them. this type of forces is called hydrogen bonding. hydrogen bonding is also called intermolecular forces between two molecules.

Hydrogen bonds also occur between hydrogen fluoride molecules. and atmos are bound to highly electronegative elements. and it has available loan pair electron. therefore, it is more possibility to make hydrogen bonding.

let’s know with another examples,

For other example, (H.F, Hydrogen fluoride)

dipole dipole interaction

HF – in case of hydrogen fluoride (HF molecules), it is chemically bounded due to covalent bond. it is share one pair of electrons and form a single molecules of hydrogen fluoride. hydrogen is directly attached with high electronegative atom(F). fluorine is highly electronegative atom compare with hydrogen. the Electronegativity of fluorine is 4.0 and Electronegativity of hydrogen is 2.1 and difference is (1.9). Due to large difference in Electronegativity. As a result hydrogen bonding occur between hydrogen fluoride atoms.

therefore, we can say that it is highly polarized molecules. partial negative charge appear on fluorine and partial positive charge appear on hydrogen. there are two polarized molecules in which they attracted partial negative charge to partial positive charge. As a result attractive force is produce that forces is called hydrogen bonding.

Read MoreWhat is the intermolecular forces of ethanol?

Dipole-dipole intraction

Dipole-dipole intraction are attracted among polarized molecules. we know that polarized molecules has two poles partial positive pole and partial negative pole. therefore it is called dipole. dipole dipole intraction occur between two polarized molecules or between two polarized dipole.

consider the one dipole, it has two pole partial positive pole and partial negative poles. consider another dipole it has also two poles, partial positive pole and partial negative poles, we has two dipoles. So, the negative pole of one molecules attracted the positive pole of another molecules. due to this attractive forces are produces. this attractive forces is called dipole dipole intraction.

For examples, (H F, hydrogen fluoride)

Similarly, consider the single molecules of hydrogen fluoride. you know that it is dipole because it has two pole partial positive pole and partial negative pole.

Consider another molecules of hydrogen fluoride, these are also a dipole because it has two pole partial positive pole and partial negative pole.

Now, we has two dipole as shown in figure.

the negative pole of one molecules attracted to positive pole of another molecules. due to this attractive forces produced between this two dipoles, this type of forces is called dipole-dipole intraction.

electronegativity is difference between H and F. so, it is a polar molecules and polar molecules have permanent dipoles and it is make covalent bond. they attract partial positive end of one polar molecules to the partial negative end of another polar molecules. therefore, we can say that, hydrogen bonding and dipole-dipole intraction are also occur in H.F ,N-H molecules.

You can identify bond type by the following electron difference such as,

> 2.0 – ionic

0.5 to 2.0 – polar covalent

< 0.5 – nonpolar covalent

Here, in case of nh3 molecules, the large difference of electronegativity (0.8) occur between the N atom and H atom. and due to above information we can say that it is polar covalent. and due to highly electronegativity atom like nitrogen (N) are directly connected with hydrogen (H). and it make N-H bond. this reson, dipole-dipole intraction and hydrogen bonding occur between nh3 molecules.

In case of NH3, both dipole-dipole intraction and hydrogen bonding are persent as well. you know that hclo intermolecular forces has also dipole-dipole intraction. if you talk about london dispersion forces, it is temporary dipoles, reson is, distribution of electron is not well on molecules. but london dispersion force is not high attraction then dipole – dipole intraction.

Some common weaker types of intermolecular force of attraction which form within molecules. such as, covalent bond, ionic bond, coordination bond. but these force are weaker then intermolecular force. intermolecular forces are responsible for the liquid, solid, and solution state of any type of compound.

Some common types of intermolecular forces,

  1. London dispersion forces
  2. Dipole-dipole intraction
  3. Hydrogen bonding
  4. Ion-ion force

London dispersion forces – the molecules overall is non polar then it is only intermolecular forces is the London dispersion forces. as you will remember this is the weakest intermolecular forces. and you know, london dispersion forces is not operate long distance, it is oprate short distance. it creat temporary positive to temporary negative charged. London dispersion forces is a weak force compare with dipole-dipole intraction.

Dipole-dipole intraction – Dipole-dipole force are more attractive among polar molecules. the dipole-dipole force is more interactive take place on polarized molecules. dipole-dipole force occur between two dipole. the partial positive pole of one dipole to partial negative pole of another dipole. as a results, attractive forces is produce. this forces is called dipole dipole intraction. therefore, we can say that nh3 molecules has hydrogen bonding or dipole-dipole force.

For example, HCl

HCl – In case of hcl intermolecular fores, it has also dipole dipole intraction. dipole-dipole intraction is occur on polar molecules. this molecules is also a polar molecules. because chlorine has highly electronegative than hydrogen. So, we can say that it is more attraction on polar molecules.

Hydrogen bonding – hydrogen bond is not chemical bond. it is intermolecular forces between molecules. hydrogen bond and dipole-dipole forces both are intermolecular forces between molecules. but in both hydrogen bond and dipole-dipole forces which one is more stronger hydrogen bond is 10 times stronger then all dipole-dipole forces.

for example,

Hydrogen bond exist only in those type of molecules like – H2O, NH3, HF.

H2O – hydrogen bond exist between molecules of water.

NH3 – hydrogen bond exist between molecules of ammonia.

HF – hydrogen bond exist between molecules of hydrogen floride.

Ion ion force – ion ion forces, it mean that force of attraction between two ion. ion ion force of attraction occur between two ion in which ion has net parmanent charge. the sutable example is (na+)………..(cl-). sodium has positive charge and chlorine has negative charge. it attract between two ion. this is called ion ion force.

Examples of shape of molecules and intermolecular forces

There are many examples are given, and All molecules are generated different shape and different intermolecular forces.

let’s know with examples

1. SO2 – Molecular shape of SO2 is bent. First you draw Lewis structure of SO2. It help to understand about molecules.

So2 intermolecular forces

If you see carefully this structure. You can say that, It is not symmetric. it contains polar molecules. so you can say that it has not possibility to hydrogen bonding. It has more possibility to dipole-dipole intraction. therefore, the intermolecular forces of SO2 is dipole dipole-dipole intraction.

2. SCO – the shape of SCO molecules is linear. In this case, the out side atoms are identical would be symmetrical but in case of SCO you have two different atoms on the ends and a sulphur. it is clear from Lewis structure of SCO.

Sco intermolecular forces

So, it is not symmetric. therefore, it is polar molecules. there are no, hydrogen’s. So, the main intermolecular forces of SCO is dipole-dipole intraction.

3. CO2 – it is similar to SCO molecules. first you draw Lewis structure of CO2.

Co2 intermolecular forces

It is more similar to SCO molecules. Both molecules are linier. in this case though you have oxygens on both ends of molecules. the structure is symmetrical and therefore, carbon dioxide is nonpolar molecules. there is no net polarity to carbon dioxide and it only has London dispersion forces.

4. H2O – the molecular shape of H2O is also bent as show in figure.

H2O intermolecular forces

water is not symmetrical, therefore it is polar molecules. but it contains OH bond. Oxygen is directly bonded to hydrogen. so, it is highly possibility to hydrogen bonding. therefore, you can say that the intermolecular forces of H2O is hydrogen bonding.

Read More:- What is the intermolecular forces of CO?

What type of intermolecular forces are present in following molecules, H2S, CH4 and HClO.

H2S – You know that, h2s have London dispersion forces, it is polar molecules so, you can say that, this is a dipole-dipole but not hydrogen bonding. because in this case, there is no hydrogen bonding is made. Hydrogen bonding are made if hydrogen is bound with electronegative atoms such as, N, O, F. and bonds is H-N, H-O, H-F but in case of h2s, it has no hydrogen bonding.

Therefore, H2S has London dispersion forces and dipole – dipole intraction. whereas, h2o exhibits hydrogen bonding. hydrogen bonding is much stronger then dipole dipole intraction.

If strength of London intermolecular forces depends on the number of electrons. Sulfur has more electrons compare with oxygen. so you can say that H2S has stronger London dispersion forces.

CH4 – this molecules has lowest intermolecular forces because this molecules has only London dispersion forces. and CH4 have lowest number of electrons 10. this is the reason CH4 is called weakest intermolecular forces.

HClO – in case of hclo intermolecular forces, it is a polar molecules, in which, Cl element have high electronegative compared to hydrogen and oxygen. Therefore, you can say that, It has dipole-dipole force.

Note:- hydrogen bonding is much strongest intermolecular forces then London dispersion forces. it is found in h2s, and ch4. It require more energy needed to overcome them.

Boiling point of molecules

If strength of molecules increase then boiling point of molecules also increase”.

For example;

London dispersion forces > dipole-dipole > hydrogen bonding.

So, the increase strength london dispersion forces to hydrogen bonding, it is also increasing boiling point.

this sequence are weakest to strongest intermolecular forces.

For weakest IMF – lower boiling point

For strongest IMF – higher boiling point

If two compound have same intermolecular forces then the number of electrons increase the boiling point.

Number of electrons = increase boiling point

NH3 Polar or Non Polar?

nh3 polar or nonpolar
nh3 polar or nonpolar?

Yes, nh3 is polar molecules because of the electronegativity it mean, difference in electronegativity. first identify which atoms has more electronegative. nitrogen has more electronegativity compare with hydrogen. therefore, it is polar molecules.

If we talking about Electronegativity of nitrogen and hydrogen.

You know that,

Electronegativity of Nitrogen3

Electronegativity of hydrogen2.1

Difference between them is, – 0.1

So, you can say that the electronegativity of nitrogen atom is more then hydrogen atoms.

electronegativity is different between them, so in this case nh3 is called polar molecules.

in this case, you can see that the nitrogen atoms polling on the electron that is sharing electron with hydrogen atoms. and nitrogen has one loan pair. and three hydrogen atoms are conected with central atoms (nitrogen).

the overall explanation, it is clear that the nh3 is a polar molecules.

Frequently Asked question

1. Why NH3 is called dipole-dipole?

You know that, ammonia is a polar molecules. it exhibits, dipole-dipole intraction, induced attraction, and London dispersion forces. NH3 is called dipole dipole because nh3 make N-H bond, it directly make hydrogen bonding. hydrogen is bound to nitrogen and it make hydrogen bonds properly. So, this reason it is called dipole dipole.

2. What type of intermolecular forces is NH3?

Ammonia (NH3) is make hydrogen bonding and it effect extensive hydrogen bonding between molecules. in case of NH3, the main type of intermolecular forces is;

(a) London dispersion forces

(b) dipole-dipole interaction

these type of forces is easy to change polarity of atoms. So, ammonia has these type of forces and it make directly hydrogen bonding.

3. What is the strongest intermolecular forces in NH3?

You know that, nitrogen and oxygen are directly bound to hydrogen.

For example,

NH3 – Ammonia

H2O – water

In case NH3 – it directly make hydrogen bonding. If you talk about ammonia (NH3). it make N-H bonds.

In case of H2O – it is also make hydrogen bonding. hydrogen bonding is best or strongest intermolecular forces.

4. What are three main intermolecular forces?

the main intermolecular forces is,

(a) dipole-dipole intermolecular forces

(b) London dispersion forces

(c) hydrogen bonding

these are the main or strongest intermolecular forces.


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