Ambidentate ligand which have two sites to donate in a single ligands.

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What is Ambidentate ligand?

Ambidentate ligands is a type of ligands in which if ligands have two or more doner atoms but conditions is, only one can donate electron pair (loan pair) at a time. this mean, ligands which have two sites to donate in a single ligands. as a results, it form coordination complex. these type of ligands is called ambidentate ligands.

For example;

ambidentate ligand

There are two donating sites are persent, such as

  1. Oxygen
  2. Nitrogen

there are two donating sites or two donating atoms persent in NO2- Molecules. In this molecules, it has two doner sites (oxygen and nitrogen), this mean, two doner atoms are persent in NO2- molecules. In this molecules, oxygen have one loan pair whereas nitrogen have also one loan pair. but only one can donate loan pair at a time.

If nitrogen donate one loan pair to the center matel ion to form coordination complex then it is called nitrito – N.

Whereas, If oxygen donate one loan pair to the center matel ion then it is called nitrito – O.

Example of ambidentate ligands

There are three main examples of ambidentate ligands is as follows.

  1. CN-
  2. NO2-
  3. SCN-

1 . CN- molecules

This type of ligands (CN-) have two donor atoms (carbon and nitrogen) but only one can donate at a time. If nitrogen donate for center atoms then according to this, it is called Isocyanido. and if carbon donate center atoms then it is called cyanido.

Here, all donate atoms (carbon and nitrogen) are represent properly. if ligands are represent two donor atoms and also donate only one at a time then this type ligand are consider as a Ambidentate ligands.

2. NO2 – molecules

This molecules have also two donor atoms but only one can donate at the time. there are two different donor atoms are persent. but only one can donate at a time.

Here, oxygen and nitrogen are donor atoms let’s know with examples.

Here, this molecules have two donor atoms, first is oxygen and another one is nitrogen. If nitrogen can donate, then this is called nitrito – N and if oxygen can donate then this is called nitrito – O.

3. SCN – Molecules

If ligands have two or more donor atoms are persent but only one can donate at a time. this mean, this is a Ambidentate ligands.

Here, SCN molecules have two donor atoms are persent but only one can donate at a time,

I mean to say that if sulfur can donate then it is called thiocyanate – S. and if Nitrogen can donate then it is called thiocyanate – N. Lets know with structure.

Example of different ligands

  1. Monodentate ligands example
  2. Bidentate ligands example
  3. Bridging ligands example
  4. Tridentate ligands example
  5. Tetradentate ligands example
1. Monodentate ligands

If molecules have only one donor atoms are persent then this type of molecules considered as a monodentate ligands.

for examples,

  1. 1. NH3

Yes, this molecules have only one donor atoms such as

Niteogen. Nitrogen is only donor atoms in ammonia. so, we can say that this molecules is monodentate ligands.

2. Bidentate ligands

If molecules (ligands) have two donor atoms are persent then this type of molecules is considered as a bidentate ligands.

for example,

According to the structure, if you see properly, this carbonate ion have two donor atoms (both oxygen) as a mension in structure.

3. Bridging ligands

When monodentate ligands link or connect the two metal atoms simultaneously are called bridging ligands. it represent (u)

for examples,

when single bridging ligands are persent then structure will be,

bridging ligands example

When 2 different bridging ligands are persent then the structure of bridging ligands will be like this,

bridging ligands

4. Tridentate ligands

If molecules have three donor atoms are persent then this type of molecules is know as tridentate ligands.

Here, we are represent for three donor atoms. in structure, only three nitrogen are donor atoms.

In this case, only three nitrogen are donate electrons. so we can say that there are three donating sites are persent as shown in structure.

5. Tetradentate ligands

If molecules have five donor atoms are persent. this type of molecules are considered tetradentate ligads.

For example,

In this molecules, there are two different donor atoms are persent such as, 2 atoms of nitrogen and 3 atoms of oxygen as shown in structure.

This type of ligands are represent as a tetradentate ligands.


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