What is disproportionation reaction?
If we are talking about disproportionation reaction, disproportionation reaction is one type of chemical reaction in which same an elements or substance undergoes oxidation and reduction. as a result, this reaction gives two different product.
According to above information, now, we can say that in case of disproportionation process, an elements is behaving as oxidising agent for one molecules and at the same time as reducing agent for another molecules. and this chemical reaction gives two different products.
Now, according to above information,we can write the reaction;
Now, we are going to explain about disproportionation reaction examples.
If we are observed, the oxidation state of cr in CrO4^3- is equal to +5. as shown in reaction.
the oxidation state of Cr in CrO4^2- is +6. &
the oxidation state of Cr^3- is equal to +3.
Now, we can say that, in this reaction, the oxidation state of Cr in CrO4^3- is +5 to the oxidation state of Cr in CrO4^2- is + 6. this term is called oxidation.
Similarly, the oxidation state of Cr in CrO4^3- is +5 to the oxidation state of Cr in Cr^3- is +3. this terms is called reduction.
Example of disproportionation reaction
Disproportionation reaction is a one type of chemical reaction in which an elements in one oxidation state is simultaneously oxidised and reduced. and these types of chemical reaction gives two different oxidation state or two different type of products. this type of reaction is know as disproportionation reaction. Lets know with examples,
Examples – 1
According to reaction, we can see that, first the main reactant (mono4) is oxidised and further oxidised product undergoes reduce. first write oxidation state for elements (mno4 – reactant) oxidation state of mno4 is (+6) due to this reaction, it gives two different oxidation state +7 and +4 Or two different product.
According to this explaination, at the same elements or reactant (mno4)2- give two different oxidation state (+7) and (+4). where fist one is oxidation (+7) and second is reduction (+4). so, according to this, it is clear this is disproportionation reaction.
Example – 2
In this reaction, same elements give two different oxidation state such as (+5) and (+2). and first is oxidation product and another is reduction product.
If one elements give two different oxidation state or tweo different product (one is oxidation and other is reduction) then this type reaction is considered disproportionation reaction.
Here, the oxidising agent like mno4, HNO2. they can go undergoes disproportionation reaction. and According to this reaction, we can say that, this is a disproportionation reaction. It close through aqueous medium only. so, this type of reaction consider aqueous medium only.
The reaction in which same elements (like – Cl2) undergoes both oxidation and reduction.
Oxidation state of Cl2 is 0 and it oxidise to +1 and reduce to -1 as shown in reaction.
so, we can say that cl2 are gives oxidation as well as reduction. and this particular reaction is called disproportionation reaction.
Here, In this reaction Cl2 gives increasing oxidation no as well as decreasing oxidation no. such as
-1 0 +1
Increasing oxidation no – +1 (by loss of electrons)
Decreasing oxidation no – -1 (by gain of electrons)
Now, I m going to show oxidation reaction and reduction reaction for this reaction.
Cl2 – ClO-
Cl2 – Cl-
According to this discussion, we can say that this type of reaction is considered as a disproportionation reaction.