Valence electron – the electrons inside the valence shell are called valence electrons.

How to find valence electron?

The electrons present in the outermost shell of the atom of an element are called valence electrons. and the outermost shell of an atom is known as valence shell. and electron persent in it is called valence electron.

• Electrons persent in energy shell of atom and electrons persent near of nuecle of atom. and electrons also resolved around the necule.

• Electrons have negative charge and neucle have positive charge.

• You know that, the force of attraction of positive charge and positive charge are repail and also repale if negative charge attrac with negative charge.

• But if positive charge (nu) and negative charge (e-) are attraction each other. In this case, neucle have positive charge and electrons have negative charge. according to this charge both are attract each other. as shown in figure.

valence electron

• This mean, necule (positive charge) give more attractive forces on electrons (negative charge).

for example,

ve + Attract more if e- (electrons) closer to nucleus.

where,

e- – electrons

p+ – protone

n – nutone

• Attractive forces seem more if electrons is closer to the nucleus. But Attractive forces seem less if electrons is not closer to the nucleus. the force of attraction is going to less if electrons is not closer to the nucleus.

What is valence shell? and examples

The outermost shell of an atom is called valence shell. valence shell is define as, actually valence shell is outer most energy level of an atoms.

The number of electrons in the valence shell of an atom is determine its chemical properties. Because, atom with incompletely filled valence shell are unstable. and atom with completely filled valence shell are stable.

Valency

The number of electrons gained, lost or shared by the atom of an elements. so, as to complete it’s octet or duplate.

for examples,

1. Hydrogen (H)

This elements having only k shell is called as valence of the elements as shown in figure.

Hydrogen atom

Hydrogen atom have only one electrons, this is known as valence electron of hydrogen. but in this case, one electrons are required to complete duplet.

Duplet = 2n2 = e- = +1

1e- is required to complete duplet from one atom.

2. Oxygen (O)

The atomic no of oxygen is 8.

And electrons configuration of oxygen is,

2, 6…..

According to electrons configuration of oxygen, you can see that only 2 electrons are required to complete octet.

But it is possible if two hydrogen atom shared 2 electrons to oxygen.

oxygen atom

According to this, Oxygen is easily complete octet. and that is the resion, oxygen atom combine to both hydrogen atom to form water molecules.

Question and Answer

1. What is valence electrons of carbon, Explain it?

There are two different way to calculate number of valence electron of carbon, oxygen and other elements.

  1. First way, with the help of perodic table.
  2. Second way, with the help of electron configuration.

First you look out the periodic table

You look out the periodic table for carbon atom, carbon atom is in group 14, it is also called 4a. that the reson it has 4 valence electron. so, we can say that carbon has 4 valence electron.

Now, i am going to write the electron configuration of carbon atom. (it is another methods to calculate valence electron).

valence electron of carbon

According to electrons configuration of carbon atom, you look only high energy from electron configuration, results is 2s2 2p2. Due to this, by adding high energy, [2 + 2 = 4]. so, we can say that valence electron of carbon is 4.

2. What is valence electron of oxygen?

For calculating, valence electron for oxygen.

First you look out in periodic table, oxygen is in 18 group, it is also called 6a. so, we can say that valence electron of oxygen is 6.

Now, in other way, for calculating valence electron of oxygen. write the electron configuration of oxygen. then you can easily calculate valence electron for any elements.

for example,

Atomic number of Oxygen is 8. due to this we can write electron configuration of oxygen.

valence electron of oxygen

if you look highest energy of electron configuration of oxygen, it is 2s2 2p2. If you adding the highest energy then results is 2 + 4 = 6.

So, we can say that valence electron of oxygen is 6.

3. What is valence electron of iodine?

If you look in periodic table for iodine. iodine is in group 7. so, we can say that electron valence of iodine is 7.

Now, for calculating another way, first write the electron configuration for iodine. and electron configuration for iodine is,

valence electron of iodine

Due to this, You can add only highest energy of electron configuration.

5s2 5s5. due to this, 2 + 5 = 7. so, we can say that electron valence of iodine is 7.


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